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Female plants of several dioecious angiosperms are commercially valued for production of fruits (papaya, kiwi, dates etc.) or seeds (nutmeg, pistachio, black pepper, jojoba etc.). To make cultivation profitable it is necessary to grow more female than male plants for such crops. However, as the sex of most of the dioecious plants is not revealed morphologically, male and female plants cannot be distinguished at the seedling stage. The use of molecular marker technology provides a quick and reliable identification of sex types in plantlets growing in seedbeds. Identification of sex in jojoba is of utmost importance from the commercial point of view, since the sexuality cannot be distinguished prior to floral initiation. As only about 8-10% of male plants are required for pollination, there is need to weed out excess males. Of the several PCR-based techniques, RAPD and ISSR are technically simple, quick to perform, requires small amount of DNA and involves no radioactivity. The objective of the present study thus focused on use of RAPD and ISSR techniques to evaluate DNA from male and female jojoba plants for their genetic diversity and to identify sex-specific molecular marker.
Empirical models for studying and predicting the drying rate and qualities of pretreated red bell pepper (vitamin A, vitamin C, ash content, water loss and solid gain) were developed. Adequacy and validity tests done on the models gave reliable and satisfactory results. Optimization of the process gives the favourable combination of process parameters that maximize or minimize the output parameters.
Chilli (Capsicum annuum L.) popularly known as hot, bell and sweet pepper or cayenne (English), tianjiao (Chinese), poivron (French) and paprika (German), belongs to genus Capsicum of Solanaceae family. It is diploid (2n = 24), annually cultivated short-lived perennial plant. Though chilli is classified under self-pollinated crops, natural cross pollination takes place up to the extent of 7 to 60 per cent. Therefore, greater amount of variability is observed in this crop. In most of the Indian diets, chilli is mainly consumed as a spice in form of dried powder or fresh green fruits. In addition to high nutritive values, chilli also has medicinal properties. Biochemical and molecular markers can be effective means to determine varietal identification among different genotypes/varieties. Isozyme electrophoresis, SDS-PAGE and RAPD offer potentially simple, rapid and reliable techniques for varietal identification of chilli. Isoelectric focusing, a newly traditional techniques can also more useful for the identification of different chilli varieties.